Working Group 1 - Clinical practice in neuromodulation 

Initiated by Giordano d'Urso

Leaders:  to be determined


Aim: Although NIBS has been used with some success for over 50 years in clinical practice, it suffers from time-intensive trial-and-error parameter refinement, high heterogeneity in patients and highly variable outcomes. This lack of mechanistic understanding represents a critical gap in knowledge and hinders our ability to design therapeutic stimulation protocols to target specific pathologies efficiently. More work is needed, such as comparing different protocols, patient populations, etc. Moreover, updating existing guidelines (e.g., tDCS) are necessary and comprehensive reviews of new studies are needed.